There are currently two bills, SB1279 and HB2482, being considered in the legislature, which would expand Empowerment Scholarship Accounts (ESAs), also known as school vouchers, to every K-12 student in Arizona over three years. While we are supportive of school choice where it advances a world-class education for all students, we are concerned about the proposed rapid expansion of ESAs and how it could potentially undermine high academic standards for all children, our district and charter school accountability systems, and our ability to ensure that taxpayer dollars are being spent effectively.


As we’ve been sharing information about these bills, we have had questions about what ESAs are and how they function. Below is a short overview and a list of resources that provide additional information on ESAs.

What’s an Empowerment Scholarship Account?

Empowerment Scholarship Accounts (ESAs) have been part of the school choice landscape in Arizona since 2011-12 when they were originally created to serve students with special needs. Since then, ESAs, also known as vouchers, have been expanded to serve other students. To receive an ESA, parents of eligible children must waive their rights for their child to attend a public district or charter school and in return, they receive financial assistance to provide other options for their child’s education.

Who is eligible to receive an ESA?

Originally designed to serve students with special needs, other groups now have access to ESAs including:

  • Students that attend D or F public schools in the year prior to applying
  • Students whose parent is active military duty or who was killed while serving active duty in the Armed Forces
  • Siblings of current recipients
  • Wards of the court who have been or will be adopted
  • Any child who resides on tribal lands

Students and parents must reside in Arizona and meet one or more other qualifications (learn more here).

How much state funding do ESAs provide?

The amount varies depending on the student. However, students generally receive 90 percent of the amount it would have cost to educate the child at a charter school, whether they attended a charter school previously or not. Charter schools typically receive around $1,200 more per student in state funding than traditional district public schools. Other factors that can influence the amount of funding that a student receives is if the student has special needs and their grade level. For example, a student who has significant special needs could receive up to $30,000.

How is the funding used?
The funds can be used for private school tuition and fees; tuition and fees for private online learning programs; tutoring services; curriculum; textbooks; or fees for national achievement tests, AP exams or postsecondary admissions; therapies for special needs students; and other approved items.

What are the impacts of the proposed expansion?

The proposed expansion could significantly increase the amount for ESAs paid by the state’s general fund, depending on the number of participating students. The program currently has around 2,000 participating students. Also of concern is the lack of transparency of taxpayer dollars and the effectiveness in being used outside of the public school system.

In addition, there is no academic accountability with ESAs, which means there is no way to track the quality of a child’s education that he/she receives with an ESA or to know how these students are doing.

Arizona Department of Education – Includes FAQs, information about eligibility, and presentations.
Arizona Revised Statutes – See Chapter 19, Article 1 at the bottom of the page.
Empowerment Scholarship Accounts: Who qualifies, how money is spent (Arizona Education News Service, 2014)